Are there any studies or whitepapers estimating when we might run out of Bitcoin, and if there are any potential technical remediations for that, preferably without a hard fork?
I'm not talking about the end of minting Bitcoins, but when the amount of Bitcoins in active or possible circulation reach such a low number (or the demand is high enough) that one satoshi is too large for the smallest transaction that someone wants to do when converted to some fiat non-crypto currency. Assuming that Bitcoin stays around "forever", this will happen eventually. In fact, it may happen (although unlikely) even before the end of new Bitcoin minting.
So the question is, when, and what options would be possible at that point?
Currently, 10 satoshi is 0.0019 USD. To me, that is dangerously close to 0.01 USD, which is a basic reference point. Let's say there's a non-zero chance that in ten years BTC-USD grows by 10x. Then, it will no longer be possible to send 0.01 USD worth of value with BTC. Of course, even if this happens, accounting for USD inflation maybe no one would want to send 0.01 USD, but that it still getting a little too close for comfort.